sundarbans national park
Located in the eastern part of West Bengal, Sundarban, is the largest delta in the world, consisting of 10,200 sq km of Mangrove Forest that is spread over India (4200 sq km of Reserved Forest) and Bangladesh (6000 sq km approx of Reserved Forest). Sundarban also happens to be the largest Mangrove Forest in the world. Another 5400 square kilometer area consisting of non-forest in India, makes the total area of Indian Sundarban 9600 square kilometer which includes Sundarban Biosphere Reserve.
The word Sundarban is coined from the Sundari or mangrove trees that are a native to this region. In Indian topography, Sundarban is bound by the river Muriganga on the west and by rivers Harinbhahga and Raimangal on the east. Other major rivers which flow through this forest are Thakuran, Saptamukhi, Gosaba and Matla.
The sundarbans national park region is situated at south of the Tropic of Cancer, but its temperature is equable owing to its nearness to the sea (Bay of Bengal). The average maximum temperature in sundarbans national park is around 35 degree Celsius and the region records an annual rainfall of 1920 mm, at an average. Humidity count stays near about 82% all through the year.
The Uniqueness of Sundarban
In the year 1989, the Government of India constituted Sundarban Biosphere Reserve and the recognition of UNESCO under Man and Biosphere (MAB) Program was received in November, 2001. The sundarbans national park, which subsequently defined as the core area of Sundarban Tiger Reserve, was recognized as the World Heritage Site by UNESCO in the year 1987. GOI also nominated sundarban as Ramsar Site – a wetland of international importance.
Sundarban Tiger Reserve was constituted by the Government of India under Project Tiger scheme, in the year 1973 and it has the highest tiger count than in any other place in the world. It is the world’s lone mangrove forest which is home to the tigers.
Sundarban hosts a rich diversity of terrestrial and aquatic flora and fauna. Its’ highly productive ecosystem acts as a natural fish nursery. The Mangrove forest hinders the dangerous cyclonic storm and also protects soil erosion during high tides. The inhabitants of the forest earn their livelihood through fishing, collection of honey and fuel-wood/timber.
sundarbans national park and Other National Parks in India
There are more than 80 national parks in India at present. Each one is unique in its own way. The earliest of them all, The Corbett National Park is also reputed for its tiger reserve. Another National Park which is believed to have the highest concentration of tigers is the Bandavgarh National Park. With the magnificent terrain of hills and valleys it is considered as the best bet when it comes to viewing tigers. Ranthambore National Park, with its small population of tigers is also famous for the fact that the wild animals can be easily spotted here, thanks to the rocky and relatively barren terrain. There is also The Kanha National Park where the famous author Rudyard Kipling based his classic Jungle Book on.
However none match the biodiversities offered by sundarbans national park. It has one of the richest reserves of flora and fauna all over the world. The mangrove trees, from which the place derives its name has a total of 64 types available here along with numerous other plants here. Also other than the famed tigers there are numerous other animals like the wild boar, spotted dear, wild cat, rhesus macaque, flying fox and several other animals and reptiles that are visible here. Sundarbans is also a heaven for ornithologists or passionate bird watchers.